GloNAF (Global Naturalized Alien Flora) is a living database project about alien plant species and became a synonym for many related projects dealing with all kinds of scientific and policy relevant questions and studies about alien species (also other taxa) and related data.

The Global Alien Naturalized Flora (GloNAF) database provides spatial information on naturalized alien vascular plant species distributions worldwide. This database contains 13,939 alien plant species naturalized and covers 1,029 regions (countries, federal states, islands) which cover over 83% of the terrestrial area of the world. The database has recently been published (van Kleunen et al. 2019) and provides a wide range of opportunities to analyze macro-ecological and macro-evolutionary patterns of plant invasions. This project aims 1) to continue updating and expanding GloNAF, (2) to assess and explain geographic and taxonomic patterns in numbers of naturalized species, (3) to test whether different attributes and economic uses of species are related to invasion success, along different dimensions of invasion success and across time, and (4) to predict future invasions based on different scenarios of global investments, bilateral trade and global environmental change.


van Kleunen M., Dawson W., Essl F., Pergl J., Winter M., Weber E., et al. (2015). Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants. Nature, 525(7567), 100-103.
Razanajatovo M., Maurel N., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., Pergl J., et al. (2016). Plants capable of selfing are more likely to become naturalized. Nature Communications, 7(iDiv), 1-9.
Dellinger A. S., Essl F., Hojsgaard D., Kirchheimer B., Klatt S., Dawson W., et al. (2016). Niche dynamics of alien species do not differ among sexual and apomictic flowering plants. New Phytologist, 209(3), 1313-1323.
Pergl J., Pysek P., Bacher S., Essl F., Genovesi P., Harrower C. A., et al. (2017). Troubling travellers: are ecologically harmful alien species associated with particular introduction pathways? Neobiota, (32), 1-20.
Seebens H., Essl F., & Blasius B. (2017). The intermediate distance hypothesis of biological invasions. Ecology Letters, 20(2), 158-165.
Mayer K., Haeuser E., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., Pergl J., et al. (2017). Naturalization of ornamental plant species in public green spaces and private gardens. Biological Invasions, 19(12), 3613-3627.
Dawson W., Moser D., van Kleunen M., Kreft H., Pergl J., Pyšek P., et al. (2017). Global hotspots and correlates of alien species richness across taxonomic groups. Nature Ecology And Evolution, 1(JUNE), 1-7.
Pysek P., Pergl J., Essl F., Lenzner B., Dawson W., Kreft H., et al. (2017). Naturalized alien flora of the world: Species diversity, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns, geographic distribution and global hotspots of plant invasion. Preslia, 89(3), 203-274.
Moser D., Lenzner B., Weigelt P., Dawson W., Kreft H., Pergl J., et al. (2018). Remoteness promotes biological invasions on islands worldwide. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America, 115(37), 9270-9275.
Guo W. Y., van Kleunen M., Winter M., Weigelt P., Stein A., Pierce S., et al. (2018). The role of adaptive strategies in plant naturalization. Ecology Letters, 21(9), 1380-1389.
van Kleunen M., Essl F., Pergl J., Brundu G., Carboni M., Dullinger S., et al. (2018). The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions. Biological Reviews, 93(3), 1421-1437.
Haeuser E., Dawson W., Thuiller W., Dullinger S., Block S., Bossdorf O., et al. (2018). European ornamental garden flora as an invasion debt under climate change. Journal Of Applied Ecology, 55(5), 2386-2395.
Lenzner B., Essl F., & Seebens H. (2018). The Changing Role of Europe in Past and Future Alien Species Displacement. In R. Rozzi, May Jr., R. H., Chapin III, F. S., Massardo, F., Gavin, M. C., Klaver, I. J., et al. (Eds.), From Biocultural Homogenization to Biocultural Conservation (pp. 125-135). Springer, Cham.
Guo W. -Y., van Kleunen M., Pierce S., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., et al. (2019). Domestic gardens play a dominant role in selecting alien species with adaptive strategies that facilitate naturalization. Global Ecology And Biogeography, 28(5), 628-639.
Ansong M., Pergl J., Essl F., Hejda M., van Kleunen M., Randall R., & Pyšek P. (2019). Naturalized and invasive alien flora of Ghana. Biological Invasions, 21(3), 669-683.
Razanajatovo M., van Kleunen M., Kreft H., Dawson W., Essl F., Pergl J., et al. (2019). Autofertility and self-compatibility moderately benefit island colonization of plants. Global Ecology And Biogeography, 28(3), 341-352.
Pysek P., Guo W. -Y., Stajerova K., Moora M., Bueno C. G., Dawson W., et al. (2019). Facultative mycorrhizal associations promote plant naturalization worldwide. Ecosphere, 10(11).
Pysek P., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., Pergl J., Seebens H., et al. (2019). Contrasting patterns of naturalized plant richness in the Americas: Numbers are higher in the North but expected to rise sharply in the South. Global Ecology And Biogeography, 28(6), 779-783.
Essl F., Dawson W., Kreft H., Pergl J., Pyšek P., Van Kleunen M., et al. (2019). Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth. Aob Plants, 11(5), 1-13.
van Kleunen M., Pyšek P., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., Pergl J., et al. (2019). The Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database. Ecology, 100(1), e02542.
Pysek P., Pergl J., van Kleunen M., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., et al. (2020). South Africa as a Donor of Naturalised and Invasive Plants to Other Parts of the World. In B. W. vanWilgen, Measey, J., Richardson, D. M., Wilson, J. R., & Zengeya, T. A. (Eds.), BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA (Vol. 14, pp. 759-785). PO BOX 17, 3300 AA DORDRECHT, NETHERLANDS: SPRINGER.\_26
van Kleunen M., Xu X., Yang Q., Maurel N., Zhang Z., Dawson W., et al. (2020). Economic use of plants is key to their naturalization success. Nature Communications, 11(1).
Omer A., Kordofani M., Gibreel H. H., Pyšek P., & van Kleunen M. (2021). The alien flora of Sudan and South Sudan: taxonomic and biogeographical composition. Biological Invasions, 23(7), 2033-2045.
Pouteau R., Thuiller W., Hobohm C., Brunel C., Conn B. J., Dawson W., et al. (2021). Climate and socio-economic factors explain differences between observed and expected naturalization patterns of European plants around the world. Global Ecology And Biogeography, 30(7), 1514-1531.
Pouteau R., Biurrun I., Brunel C., Chytrý M., Dawson W., Essl F., et al. (2021). Potential alien ranges of European plants will shrink in the future, but less so for already naturalized than for not yet naturalized species. Diversity And Distributions, 27(11), 2063-2076.
Arle E., Zizka A., Keil P., Winter M., Essl F., Knight T., et al. (2021). bRacatus: A method to estimate the accuracy and biogeographical status of georeferenced biological data. Methods In Ecology And Evolution, 12(9), 1609-1619.
Fristoe T. S., Chytrý M., Dawson W., Essl F., Heleno R., Kreft H., et al. (2021). Dimensions of invasiveness: Links between local abundance, geographic range size, and habitat breadth in Europe’s alien and native floras. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America, 118(22), 1-11.
Omer A., Fristoe T., Yang Q., Maurel N., Weigelt P., Kreft H., et al. (2021). Characteristics of the naturalized flora of Southern Africa largely reflect the non-random introduction of alien species for cultivation. Ecography, 44(12), 1812-1825.
Guo Q., Cade B. S., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., Pergl J., et al. (2021). Latitudinal patterns of alien plant invasions. Journal Of Biogeography, 48(2), 253-262.
Yang Q., Weigelt P., Fristoe T. S., Zhang Z., Kreft H., Stein A., et al. (2021). The global loss of floristic uniqueness. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1-10.
Lenzner B., Magallón S., Dawson W., Kreft H., König C., Pergl J., et al. (2021). Role of diversification rates and evolutionary history as a driver of plant naturalization success. New Phytologist, 229(5), 2998-3008.
Omer A., Fristoe T., Yang Q., Razanajatovo M., Weigelt P., Kreft H., et al. (2022). The role of phylogenetic relatedness on alien plant success depends on the stage of invasion. Nature Plants, 8(8), 906-914.
Lenzner B., Latombe G., Schertler A., Seebens H., Yang Q., Winter M., et al. (2022). Naturalized alien floras still carry the legacy of European colonialism. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(11), 1723-1732.
Hancock S. C., Essl F., Kraak M. -J., Dawson W., Kreft H., Pyšek P., et al. (2022). Introducing the Combined Atlas Framework for large‐scale web‐based data visualization – The GloNAF Atlas of Plant Invasion. Methods In Ecology And Evolution.
Kinlock N. L., Dehnen-Schmutz K., Essl F., Pergl J., Pysek P., Kreft H., et al. (2022). Introduction history mediates naturalization and invasiveness of cultivated plants. Global Ecology And Biogeography, 31(6), 1104-1119.
Bach W., Kreft H., Craven D., König C., Schrader J., Taylor A., et al. (2022). Phylogenetic composition of native island floras influences naturalized alien species richness. Ecography, 2022(11), e06227.
Zhang Z., Yang Q., Fristoe T. S., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., et al. (2023). The poleward naturalization of intracontinental alien plants. Science Advances, 9(40), 1-11.
Pyšek P., Lučanová M., Dawson W., Essl F., Kreft H., Leitch I. J., et al. (2023). Small genome size and variation in ploidy levels support the naturalization of vascular plants but constrain their invasive spread. New Phytologist, 239(6), 2389-2403.
Liu D., Semenchuk P., Essl F., Lenzner B., Moser D., Blackburn T. M., et al. (2023). The impact of land use on non-native species incidence and number in local assemblages worldwide. Nature Communications, 14(1), 2090.
Holmes R., Pelser P., Barcelona J., Tjitrosoedirdjo S. S., Wahyuni I., van Kleunen M., et al. (2023). The naturalized vascular flora of Malesia. Biological Invasions, 25(5), 1339-1357.
Cai L., Kreft H., Taylor A., Denelle P., Schrader J., Essl F., et al. (2023). Global models and predictions of plant diversity based on advanced machine learning techniques. New Phytologist, 237(4), 1432-1445.
Guo K., Pyšek P., van Kleunen M., Kinlock N. L., Lučanová M., Leitch I. J., et al. (2024). Plant invasion and naturalization are influenced by genome size, ecology and economic use globally. Nature Communications, 15(1), 1330.